file: /proc/sys/kernel/numa_balancing
variable: kernel.numa_balancing
Official reference

Enables/disables automatic page fault based NUMA memory balancing. Memory is moved automatically to nodes that access it often.

Enables/disables automatic NUMA memory balancing. On NUMA machines, there is a performance penalty if remote memory is accessed by a CPU. When this feature is enabled the kernel samples what task thread is accessing memory by periodically unmapping pages and later trapping a page fault. At the time of the page fault, it is determined if the data being accessed should be migrated to a local memory node.

The unmapping of pages and trapping faults incur additional overhead that ideally is offset by improved memory locality but there is no universal guarantee. If the target workload is already bound to NUMA nodes then this feature should be disabled. Otherwise, if the system overhead from the feature is too high then the rate the kernel samples for NUMA hinting faults may be controlled by the numa_balancing_scan_period_min_ms, numa_balancing_scan_delay_ms, numa_balancing_scan_period_max_ms, numa_balancing_scan_size_mb, and numa_balancing_settle_count sysctls.